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print-bgp.c

/*
 * Copyright (C) 1999 WIDE Project.
 * All rights reserved.
 *
 * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
 * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
 * are met:
 * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
 * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
 *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
 *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
 * 3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
 *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
 *    without specific prior written permission.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
 * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
 * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
 * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
 * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
 * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
 * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
 * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
 * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
 * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
 * SUCH DAMAGE.
 *
 * Extensively modified by Hannes Gredler (hannes@juniper.net) for more
 * complete BGP support.
 */

#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include "config.h"
#endif

#ifndef lint
static const char rcsid[] _U_ =
     "@(#) $Header: /tcpdump/master/tcpdump/print-bgp.c,v 1.72.2.4 2004/03/24 00:04:04 guy Exp $";
#endif

#include <tcpdump-stdinc.h>

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

#include "interface.h"
#include "addrtoname.h"
#include "extract.h"

struct bgp {
      u_int8_t bgp_marker[16];
      u_int16_t bgp_len;
      u_int8_t bgp_type;
};
#define BGP_SIZE        19    /* unaligned */

#define BGP_OPEN        1
#define BGP_UPDATE            2
#define BGP_NOTIFICATION      3
#define BGP_KEEPALIVE         4
#define BGP_ROUTE_REFRESH       5

static struct tok bgp_msg_values[] = {
    { BGP_OPEN,                 "Open"},
    { BGP_UPDATE,               "Update"},
    { BGP_NOTIFICATION,         "Notification"},
    { BGP_KEEPALIVE,            "Keepalive"},
    { BGP_ROUTE_REFRESH,        "Route Refresh"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

struct bgp_open {
      u_int8_t bgpo_marker[16];
      u_int16_t bgpo_len;
      u_int8_t bgpo_type;
      u_int8_t bgpo_version;
      u_int16_t bgpo_myas;
      u_int16_t bgpo_holdtime;
      u_int32_t bgpo_id;
      u_int8_t bgpo_optlen;
      /* options should follow */
};
#define BGP_OPEN_SIZE         29    /* unaligned */

struct bgp_opt {
      u_int8_t bgpopt_type;
      u_int8_t bgpopt_len;
      /* variable length */
};
#define BGP_OPT_SIZE          2     /* some compilers may pad to 4 bytes */

struct bgp_notification {
      u_int8_t bgpn_marker[16];
      u_int16_t bgpn_len;
      u_int8_t bgpn_type;
      u_int8_t bgpn_major;
      u_int8_t bgpn_minor;
};
#define BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE       21    /* unaligned */

struct bgp_route_refresh {
    u_int8_t  bgp_marker[16];
    u_int16_t len;
    u_int8_t  type;
    u_int8_t  afi[2]; /* the compiler messes this structure up               */
    u_int8_t  res;    /* when doing misaligned sequences of int8 and int16   */
    u_int8_t  safi;   /* afi should be int16 - so we have to access it using */
};                    /* EXTRACT_16BITS(&bgp_route_refresh->afi) (sigh)      */ 
#define BGP_ROUTE_REFRESH_SIZE          23

struct bgp_attr {
      u_int8_t bgpa_flags;
      u_int8_t bgpa_type;
      union {
            u_int8_t len;
            u_int16_t elen;
      } bgpa_len;
#define bgp_attr_len(p) \
      (((p)->bgpa_flags & 0x10) ? \
            EXTRACT_16BITS(&(p)->bgpa_len.elen) : (p)->bgpa_len.len)
#define bgp_attr_off(p) \
      (((p)->bgpa_flags & 0x10) ? 4 : 3)
};

#define BGPTYPE_ORIGIN              1
#define BGPTYPE_AS_PATH             2
#define BGPTYPE_NEXT_HOP            3
#define BGPTYPE_MULTI_EXIT_DISC           4
#define BGPTYPE_LOCAL_PREF          5
#define BGPTYPE_ATOMIC_AGGREGATE    6
#define BGPTYPE_AGGREGATOR          7
#define     BGPTYPE_COMMUNITIES           8     /* RFC1997 */
#define     BGPTYPE_ORIGINATOR_ID         9     /* RFC1998 */
#define     BGPTYPE_CLUSTER_LIST          10    /* RFC1998 */
#define     BGPTYPE_DPA             11    /* draft-ietf-idr-bgp-dpa */
#define     BGPTYPE_ADVERTISERS           12    /* RFC1863 */
#define     BGPTYPE_RCID_PATH       13    /* RFC1863 */
#define BGPTYPE_MP_REACH_NLRI       14    /* RFC2283 */
#define BGPTYPE_MP_UNREACH_NLRI           15    /* RFC2283 */
#define BGPTYPE_EXTD_COMMUNITIES        16      /* draft-ietf-idr-bgp-ext-communities */

static struct tok bgp_attr_values[] = {
    { BGPTYPE_ORIGIN,           "Origin"},
    { BGPTYPE_AS_PATH,          "AS Path"},
    { BGPTYPE_NEXT_HOP,         "Next Hop"},
    { BGPTYPE_MULTI_EXIT_DISC,  "Multi Exit Discriminator"},
    { BGPTYPE_LOCAL_PREF,       "Local Preference"},
    { BGPTYPE_ATOMIC_AGGREGATE, "Atomic Aggregate"},
    { BGPTYPE_AGGREGATOR,       "Aggregator"},
    { BGPTYPE_COMMUNITIES,      "Community"},
    { BGPTYPE_ORIGINATOR_ID,    "Originator ID"},
    { BGPTYPE_CLUSTER_LIST,     "Cluster List"},
    { BGPTYPE_DPA,              "DPA"},
    { BGPTYPE_ADVERTISERS,      "Advertisers"},
    { BGPTYPE_RCID_PATH,        "RCID Path / Cluster ID"},
    { BGPTYPE_MP_REACH_NLRI,    "Multi-Protocol Reach NLRI"},
    { BGPTYPE_MP_UNREACH_NLRI,  "Multi-Protocol Unreach NLRI"},
    { BGPTYPE_EXTD_COMMUNITIES, "Extended Community"},
    { 255,                      "Reserved for development"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

#define BGP_AS_SET             1
#define BGP_AS_SEQUENCE        2
#define BGP_CONFED_AS_SEQUENCE 3 /* draft-ietf-idr-rfc3065bis-01 */
#define BGP_CONFED_AS_SET      4 /* draft-ietf-idr-rfc3065bis-01  */

static struct tok bgp_as_path_segment_open_values[] = {
    { BGP_AS_SEQUENCE,         ""},
    { BGP_AS_SET,              "{ "},
    { BGP_CONFED_AS_SEQUENCE,  "( "},
    { BGP_CONFED_AS_SET,       "({ "},
    { 0, NULL}
};

static struct tok bgp_as_path_segment_close_values[] = {
    { BGP_AS_SEQUENCE,         ""},
    { BGP_AS_SET,              "}"},
    { BGP_CONFED_AS_SEQUENCE,  ")"},
    { BGP_CONFED_AS_SET,       "})"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

#define BGP_OPT_AUTH                    1
#define BGP_OPT_CAP                     2


static struct tok bgp_opt_values[] = {
    { BGP_OPT_AUTH,             "Authentication Information"},
    { BGP_OPT_CAP,              "Capabilities Advertisement"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

#define BGP_CAPCODE_MP                  1
#define BGP_CAPCODE_RR                  2
#define BGP_CAPCODE_RESTART            64 /* draft-ietf-idr-restart-05  */
#define BGP_CAPCODE_RR_CISCO          128

static struct tok bgp_capcode_values[] = {
    { BGP_CAPCODE_MP,           "Multiprotocol Extensions"},
    { BGP_CAPCODE_RR,           "Route Refresh"},
    { BGP_CAPCODE_RESTART,      "Graceful Restart"},
    { BGP_CAPCODE_RR_CISCO,     "Route Refresh (Cisco)"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_MSG            1
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_OPEN           2
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_UPDATE         3
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_HOLDTIME       4
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_FSM            5
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CEASE          6
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CAP            7

static struct tok bgp_notify_major_values[] = {
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_MSG,     "Message Header Error"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_OPEN,    "OPEN Message Error"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_UPDATE,  "UPDATE Message Error"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_HOLDTIME,"Hold Timer Expired"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_FSM,     "Finite State Machine Error"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CEASE,   "Cease"},
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CAP,     "Capability Message Error"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

/* draft-ietf-idr-cease-subcode-02 */
#define BGP_NOTIFY_MINOR_CEASE_MAXPRFX  1
static struct tok bgp_notify_minor_cease_values[] = {
    { BGP_NOTIFY_MINOR_CEASE_MAXPRFX, "Maximum Number of Prefixes Reached"},
    { 2,                        "Administratively Shutdown"},
    { 3,                        "Peer Unconfigured"},
    { 4,                        "Administratively Reset"},
    { 5,                        "Connection Rejected"},
    { 6,                        "Other Configuration Change"},
    { 7,                        "Connection Collision Resolution"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

static struct tok bgp_notify_minor_msg_values[] = {
    { 1,                        "Connection Not Synchronized"},
    { 2,                        "Bad Message Length"},
    { 3,                        "Bad Message Type"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

static struct tok bgp_notify_minor_open_values[] = {
    { 1,                        "Unsupported Version Number"},
    { 2,                        "Bad Peer AS"},
    { 3,                        "Bad BGP Identifier"},
    { 4,                        "Unsupported Optional Parameter"},
    { 5,                        "Authentication Failure"},
    { 6,                        "Unacceptable Hold Time"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

static struct tok bgp_notify_minor_update_values[] = {
    { 1,                        "Malformed Attribute List"},
    { 2,                        "Unrecognized Well-known Attribute"},
    { 3,                        "Missing Well-known Attribute"},
    { 4,                        "Attribute Flags Error"},
    { 5,                        "Attribute Length Error"},
    { 6,                        "Invalid ORIGIN Attribute"},
    { 7,                        "AS Routing Loop"},
    { 8,                        "Invalid NEXT_HOP Attribute"},
    { 9,                        "Optional Attribute Error"},
    { 10,                       "Invalid Network Field"},
    { 11,                       "Malformed AS_PATH"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

static struct tok bgp_notify_minor_cap_values[] = {
    { 1,                        "Invalid Action Value" },
    { 2,                        "Invalid Capability Length" },
    { 3,                        "Malformed Capability Value" },
    { 4,                        "Unsupported Capability Code" },
    { 0, NULL }
};

static struct tok bgp_origin_values[] = {
    { 0,                        "IGP"},
    { 1,                        "EGP"},
    { 2,                        "Incomplete"},
    { 0, NULL}
};

/* Subsequent address family identifier, RFC2283 section 7 */
#define SAFNUM_RES                      0
#define SAFNUM_UNICAST                  1
#define SAFNUM_MULTICAST                2
#define SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST             3
/* labeled BGP RFC3107 */
#define SAFNUM_LABUNICAST               4
/* Section 4.3.4 of draft-rosen-rfc2547bis-03.txt  */
#define SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST               128
#define SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST             129
#define SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST          130
/* draft-marques-ppvpn-rt-constrain-01.txt */
#define SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO          132

#define BGP_VPN_RD_LEN                  8

static struct tok bgp_safi_values[] = {
    { SAFNUM_RES,               "Reserved"},
    { SAFNUM_UNICAST,           "Unicast"},
    { SAFNUM_MULTICAST,         "Multicast"},
    { SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST,      "Unicast+Multicast"},
    { SAFNUM_LABUNICAST,        "labeled Unicast"},
    { SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST,        "labeled VPN Unicast"},
    { SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST,      "labeled VPN Multicast"},
    { SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST,   "labeled VPN Unicast+Multicast"},
    { SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO,   "Route Target Routing Information"},
    { 0, NULL }
};

/* well-known community */
#define BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_EXPORT                 0xffffff01
#define BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_ADVERT                 0xffffff02
#define BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_EXPORT_SUBCONFED 0xffffff03

/* RFC1700 address family numbers */
#define AFNUM_INET      1
#define AFNUM_INET6     2
#define AFNUM_NSAP      3
#define AFNUM_HDLC      4
#define AFNUM_BBN1822   5
#define AFNUM_802 6
#define AFNUM_E163      7
#define AFNUM_E164      8
#define AFNUM_F69 9
#define AFNUM_X121      10
#define AFNUM_IPX 11
#define AFNUM_ATALK     12
#define AFNUM_DECNET    13
#define AFNUM_BANYAN    14
#define AFNUM_E164NSAP  15
/* draft-kompella-ppvpn-l2vpn */
#define AFNUM_L2VPN     196 /* still to be approved by IANA */

static struct tok bgp_afi_values[] = {
    { 0,                      "Reserved"},
    { AFNUM_INET,             "IPv4"},
    { AFNUM_INET6,            "IPv6"},
    { AFNUM_NSAP,             "NSAP"},
    { AFNUM_HDLC,             "HDLC"},
    { AFNUM_BBN1822,          "BBN 1822"},
    { AFNUM_802,              "802"},
    { AFNUM_E163,             "E.163"},
    { AFNUM_E164,             "E.164"},
    { AFNUM_F69,              "F.69"},
    { AFNUM_X121,             "X.121"},
    { AFNUM_IPX,              "Novell IPX"},
    { AFNUM_ATALK,            "Appletalk"},
    { AFNUM_DECNET,           "Decnet IV"},
    { AFNUM_BANYAN,           "Banyan Vines"},
    { AFNUM_E164NSAP,         "E.164 with NSAP subaddress"},
    { AFNUM_L2VPN,            "Layer-2 VPN"},
    { 0, NULL},
};

/* Extended community type - draft-ietf-idr-bgp-ext-communities-05 */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RT_0        0x0002  /* Route Target,Format AS(2bytes):AN(4bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RT_1        0x0102  /* Route Target,Format IP address:AN(2bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RT_2        0x0202  /* Route Target,Format AN(4bytes):local(2bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RO_0        0x0003  /* Route Origin,Format AS(2bytes):AN(4bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RO_1        0x0103  /* Route Origin,Format IP address:AN(2bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_RO_2        0x0203  /* Route Origin,Format AN(4bytes):local(2bytes) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_LINKBAND    0x4004  /* Link Bandwidth,Format AS(2B):Bandwidth(4B) */
                                        /* rfc2547 bgp-mpls-vpns */

#define BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN  0x0005  /* OSPF Domain ID / VPN of Origin  - draft-rosen-vpns-ospf-bgp-mpls */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN2 0x0105  /* duplicate - keep for backwards compatability */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN3 0x0205  /* duplicate - keep for backwards compatability */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN4 0x8005  /* duplicate - keep for backwards compatability */

#define BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE  0x0306  /* OSPF Route Type,Format Area(4B):RouteType(1B):Options(1B) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE2 0x8000  /* duplicate - keep for backwards compatability */

#define BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID    0x0107  /* OSPF Router ID,Format RouterID(4B):Unused(2B) */
#define BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID2   0x8001  /* duplicate - keep for backwards compatability */ 

#define BGP_EXT_COM_L2INFO      0x800a  /* draft-kompella-ppvpn-l2vpn */

static struct tok bgp_extd_comm_flag_values[] = {
    { 0x8000,                  "vendor-specific"},
    { 0x4000,                  "non-transitive"},
    { 0, NULL},
};

static struct tok bgp_extd_comm_subtype_values[] = {
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RT_0,        "target"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RT_1,        "target"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RT_2,        "target"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RO_0,        "origin"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RO_1,        "origin"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_RO_2,        "origin"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_LINKBAND,    "link-BW"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN,  "ospf-domain"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN2, "ospf-domain"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN3, "ospf-domain"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN4, "ospf-domain"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE,  "ospf-route-type"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE2, "ospf-route-type"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID,    "ospf-router-id"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID2,   "ospf-router-id"},
    { BGP_EXT_COM_L2INFO,      "layer2-info"}, 
    { 0, NULL},
};

/* OSPF codes for  BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE draft-rosen-vpns-ospf-bgp-mpls  */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_RTR      1 /* OSPF Router LSA */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_NET      2 /* OSPF Network LSA */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_SUM      3 /* OSPF Summary LSA */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_EXT      5 /* OSPF External LSA, note that ASBR doesn't apply to MPLS-VPN */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_NSSA     7 /* OSPF NSSA External*/
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_SHAM     129 /* OSPF-MPLS-VPN Sham link */
#define BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_METRIC_TYPE 0x1 /* LSB of RTYPE Options Field */

static struct tok bgp_extd_comm_ospf_rtype_values[] = {
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_RTR, "Router" },  
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_NET, "Network" },  
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_SUM, "Summary" },  
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_EXT, "External" },  
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_NSSA,"NSSA External" },
  { BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_SHAM,"MPLS-VPN Sham" },  
  { 0, NULL },
};

static struct tok bgp_l2vpn_encaps_values[] = {
    { 0,                      "Reserved"},
    { 1,                      "Frame Relay"},
    { 2,                      "ATM AAL5 VCC transport"},
    { 3,                      "ATM transparent cell transport"}, 
    { 4,                      "Ethernet VLAN"}, 
    { 5,                      "Ethernet"}, 
    { 6,                      "Cisco-HDLC"}, 
    { 7,                      "PPP"}, 
    { 8,                      "CEM"}, 
    { 9,                      "ATM VCC cell transport"}, 
    { 10,                     "ATM VPC cell transport"}, 
    { 11,                     "MPLS"}, 
    { 12,                     "VPLS"}, 
    { 64,                     "IP-interworking"}, 
    { 0, NULL},
};

static int
decode_prefix4(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0];
      if (32 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pptr[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pptr[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            ((u_char *)&addr)[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "%s/%d", getname((u_char *)&addr), plen);
      return 1 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

static int
decode_labeled_prefix4(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0];   /* get prefix length */

        /* this is one of the weirdnesses of rfc3107
           the label length (actually the label + COS bits)
           is added to the prefix length;
           we also do only read out just one label -
           there is no real application for advertisement of
           stacked labels in a a single BGP message
        */

        plen-=24; /* adjust prefixlen - labellength */

      if (32 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pptr[4], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pptr[4], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            ((u_char *)&addr)[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
        /* the label may get offsetted by 4 bits so lets shift it right */
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "%s/%d, label:%u %s",
                 getname((u_char *)&addr),
                 plen,
                 EXTRACT_24BITS(pptr+1)>>4,
                 ((pptr[3]&1)==0) ? "(BOGUS: Bottom of Stack NOT set!)" : "(bottom)" );

      return 4 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

/* RDs and RTs share the same semantics
 * we use bgp_vpn_rd_print for
 * printing route targets inside a NLRI */
static char *
bgp_vpn_rd_print (const u_char *pptr) {

   /* allocate space for the following string
    * xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx:xxxxx
    * 21 bytes plus one termination byte */
    static char rd[22];
    char *pos = rd;

    /* ok lets load the RD format */
    switch (EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr)) {

        /* AS:IP-address fmt*/
    case 0:
        snprintf(pos, sizeof(rd) - (pos - rd), "%u:%u.%u.%u.%u",
            EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr+2), *(pptr+4), *(pptr+5), *(pptr+6), *(pptr+7));
        break;
        /* IP-address:AS fmt*/

    case 1:
        snprintf(pos, sizeof(rd) - (pos - rd), "%u.%u.%u.%u:%u",
            *(pptr+2), *(pptr+3), *(pptr+4), *(pptr+5), EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr+6));
        break;

        /* 4-byte-AS:number fmt*/
    case 2:
        snprintf(pos, sizeof(rd) - (pos - rd), "%u:%u",
            EXTRACT_32BITS(pptr+2), EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr+6));
        break;
    default:
        snprintf(pos, sizeof(rd) - (pos - rd), "unknown RD format");
        break;
    }
    pos += strlen(pos);
    *(pos) = '\0';
    return (rd);
}

static int
decode_rt_routing_info(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      u_int8_t route_target[8];
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0];   /* get prefix length */

        plen-=32; /* adjust prefix length */

      if (0 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&route_target, 0, sizeof(route_target));
      TCHECK2(pptr[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&route_target, &pptr[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            ((u_char *)&route_target)[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "origin AS: %u, route target %s",
                 EXTRACT_32BITS(pptr+1),
                 bgp_vpn_rd_print((u_char *)&route_target));

      return 5 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

static int
decode_labeled_vpn_prefix4(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0];   /* get prefix length */

        plen-=(24+64); /* adjust prefixlen - labellength - RD len*/

      if (32 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pptr[12], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pptr[12], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            ((u_char *)&addr)[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
        /* the label may get offsetted by 4 bits so lets shift it right */
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "RD: %s, %s/%d, label:%u %s",
                 bgp_vpn_rd_print(pptr+4),
                 getname((u_char *)&addr),
                 plen,
                 EXTRACT_24BITS(pptr+1)>>4,
                 ((pptr[3]&1)==0) ? "(BOGUS: Bottom of Stack NOT set!)" : "(bottom)" );

      return 12 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

static int
decode_labeled_vpn_l2(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
        int plen,tlen,strlen,tlv_type,tlv_len,ttlv_len;

      TCHECK2(pptr[0], 2);
        plen=EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr);
        tlen=plen;
        pptr+=2;
      TCHECK2(pptr[0],15);
        strlen=snprintf(buf, buflen, "RD: %s, CE-ID: %u, Label-Block Offset: %u, Label Base %u",
                        bgp_vpn_rd_print(pptr),
                        EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr+8),
                        EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr+10),
                        EXTRACT_24BITS(pptr+12)>>4); /* the label is offsetted by 4 bits so lets shift it right */
        pptr+=15;
        tlen-=15;

        /* ok now the variable part - lets read out TLVs*/
        while (tlen>0) {
            if (tlen < 3)
                return -1;
            TCHECK2(pptr[0], 3);
            tlv_type=*pptr++;
            tlv_len=EXTRACT_16BITS(pptr);
            ttlv_len=tlv_len;
            pptr+=2;

            switch(tlv_type) {
            case 1:
                strlen+=snprintf(buf+strlen,buflen-strlen, "\n\t\tcircuit status vector (%u) length: %u: 0x",
                                 tlv_type,
                                 tlv_len);
                ttlv_len=ttlv_len/8+1; /* how many bytes do we need to read ? */
                while (ttlv_len>0) {
                    TCHECK(pptr[0]);
                    strlen+=snprintf(buf+strlen,buflen-strlen, "%02x",*pptr++);
                    ttlv_len--;
                }
                break;
            default:
                snprintf(buf+strlen,buflen-strlen, "\n\t\tunknown TLV #%u, length: %u",
                         tlv_type,
                         tlv_len);
                break;
            }
            tlen-=(tlv_len<<3); /* the tlv-length is expressed in bits so lets shift it tright */
        }
        return plen+2;

trunc:
        return -2;
}

#ifdef INET6
static int
decode_prefix6(const u_char *pd, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in6_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pd[0]);
      plen = pd[0];
      if (128 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pd[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pd[1], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            addr.s6_addr[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "%s/%d", getname6((u_char *)&addr), plen);
      return 1 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

static int
decode_labeled_prefix6(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in6_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0]; /* get prefix length */
        plen-=24; /* adjust prefixlen - labellength */

      if (128 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pptr[4], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pptr[4], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            addr.s6_addr[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
        /* the label may get offsetted by 4 bits so lets shift it right */
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "%s/%d, label:%u %s",
                 getname6((u_char *)&addr),
                 plen,
                 EXTRACT_24BITS(pptr+1)>>4,
                 ((pptr[3]&1)==0) ? "(BOGUS: Bottom of Stack NOT set!)" : "(bottom)" );

      return 4 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}

static int
decode_labeled_vpn_prefix6(const u_char *pptr, char *buf, u_int buflen)
{
      struct in6_addr addr;
      u_int plen;

      TCHECK(pptr[0]);
      plen = pptr[0];   /* get prefix length */

        plen-=(24+64); /* adjust prefixlen - labellength - RD len*/

      if (128 < plen)
            return -1;

      memset(&addr, 0, sizeof(addr));
      TCHECK2(pptr[12], (plen + 7) / 8);
      memcpy(&addr, &pptr[12], (plen + 7) / 8);
      if (plen % 8) {
            addr.s6_addr[(plen + 7) / 8 - 1] &=
                  ((0xff00 >> (plen % 8)) & 0xff);
      }
        /* the label may get offsetted by 4 bits so lets shift it right */
      snprintf(buf, buflen, "RD: %s, %s/%d, label:%u %s",
                 bgp_vpn_rd_print(pptr+4),
                 getname6((u_char *)&addr),
                 plen,
                 EXTRACT_24BITS(pptr+1)>>4,
                 ((pptr[3]&1)==0) ? "(BOGUS: Bottom of Stack NOT set!)" : "(bottom)" );

      return 12 + (plen + 7) / 8;

trunc:
      return -2;
}
#endif

static int
bgp_attr_print(const struct bgp_attr *attr, const u_char *pptr, int len)
{
      int i;
      u_int16_t af;
      u_int8_t safi, snpa;
        union { /* copy buffer for bandwidth values */
            float f; 
            u_int32_t i;
        } bw;
      int advance;
      int tlen;
      const u_char *tptr;
      char buf[MAXHOSTNAMELEN + 100];

        tptr = pptr;
        tlen=len;

      switch (attr->bgpa_type) {
      case BGPTYPE_ORIGIN:
            if (len != 1)
                  printf("invalid len");
            else {
                  TCHECK(*tptr);
                  printf("%s", tok2str(bgp_origin_values, "Unknown Origin Typecode", tptr[0]));
            }
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_AS_PATH:
            if (len % 2) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
                if (!len) {
                  printf("empty");
                  break;
                }

            while (tptr < pptr + len) {
                  TCHECK(tptr[0]);
                        printf("%s", tok2str(bgp_as_path_segment_open_values, "?", tptr[0]));
                        for (i = 0; i < tptr[1] * 2; i += 2) {
                            TCHECK2(tptr[2 + i], 2);
                            printf("%u ", EXTRACT_16BITS(&tptr[2 + i]));
                        }
                  TCHECK(tptr[0]);
                        printf("%s", tok2str(bgp_as_path_segment_close_values, "?", tptr[0]));
                        TCHECK(tptr[1]);
                        tptr += 2 + tptr[1] * 2;
            }
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_NEXT_HOP:
            if (len != 4)
                  printf("invalid len");
            else {
                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], 4);
                  printf("%s", getname(tptr));
            }
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_MULTI_EXIT_DISC:
      case BGPTYPE_LOCAL_PREF:
            if (len != 4)
                  printf("invalid len");
            else {
                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], 4);
                  printf("%u", EXTRACT_32BITS(tptr));
            }
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_ATOMIC_AGGREGATE:
            if (len != 0)
                  printf("invalid len");
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_AGGREGATOR:
            if (len != 6) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
            TCHECK2(tptr[0], 6);
            printf(" AS #%u, origin %s", EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr),
                  getname(tptr + 2));
            break;
      case BGPTYPE_COMMUNITIES:
            if (len % 4) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
            while (tlen>0) {
                  u_int32_t comm;
                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], 4);
                  comm = EXTRACT_32BITS(tptr);
                  switch (comm) {
                  case BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_EXPORT:
                        printf(" NO_EXPORT");
                        break;
                  case BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_ADVERT:
                        printf(" NO_ADVERTISE");
                        break;
                  case BGP_COMMUNITY_NO_EXPORT_SUBCONFED:
                        printf(" NO_EXPORT_SUBCONFED");
                        break;
                  default:
                        printf("%u:%u%s",
                                       (comm >> 16) & 0xffff,
                                       comm & 0xffff,
                                       (tlen>4) ? ", " : "");
                        break;
                  }
                        tlen -=4;
                        tptr +=4;
            }
            break;
        case BGPTYPE_ORIGINATOR_ID:
            if (len != 4) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
            TCHECK2(tptr[0], 4);
                printf("%s",getname(tptr));
                break;
        case BGPTYPE_CLUSTER_LIST:
            if (len % 4) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
                while (tlen>0) {
                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], 4);
                        printf("%s%s",
                               getname(tptr),
                                (tlen>4) ? ", " : "");
                        tlen -=4;
                        tptr +=4;
                }
                break;
      case BGPTYPE_MP_REACH_NLRI:
            TCHECK2(tptr[0], 3);
            af = EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr);
            safi = tptr[2];
      
                printf("\n\t    AFI: %s (%u), %sSAFI: %s (%u)",
                       tok2str(bgp_afi_values, "Unknown AFI", af),
                       af,
                       (safi>128) ? "vendor specific " : "", /* 128 is meanwhile wellknown */
                       tok2str(bgp_safi_values, "Unknown SAFI", safi),
                       safi);

            if (af == AFNUM_INET || af==AFNUM_L2VPN)
                  ;
#ifdef INET6
            else if (af == AFNUM_INET6)
                  ;
#endif
            else {
                    printf("\n\t    no AFI %u decoder",af);
                    if (vflag <= 1)
                        print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                    break;
                }

                tptr +=3;

            TCHECK(tptr[0]);
            tlen = tptr[0];
                tptr++;

            if (tlen) {
                  printf("\n\t    nexthop: ");
                  while (tlen > 0) {
                        switch (af) {
                        case AFNUM_INET:
                                    switch(safi) {
                                    case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO:
                              if (tlen < (int)sizeof(struct in_addr)) {
                                  printf("invalid len");
                                  tlen = 0;
                              } else {
                                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], sizeof(struct in_addr));
                                  printf("%s",getname(tptr));
                                  tlen -= sizeof(struct in_addr);
                                  tptr += sizeof(struct in_addr);
                              }
                              break;
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                              if (tlen < (int)(sizeof(struct in_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN)) {
                                  printf("invalid len");
                                  tlen = 0;
                              } else {
                                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], sizeof(struct in_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                                  printf("RD: %s, %s",
                                               bgp_vpn_rd_print(tptr),
                                               getname(tptr+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN));
                                  tlen -= (sizeof(struct in_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                                  tptr += (sizeof(struct in_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                              }
                                        break;
                                    default:
                                        TCHECK2(tptr[0], tlen);
                                        printf("no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                        if (vflag <= 1)
                                            print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                        tptr += tlen;
                                        tlen = 0;
                                        break;
                                    }
                                    break;
#ifdef INET6
                        case AFNUM_INET6:
                                    switch(safi) {
                                    case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO:
                              if (tlen < (int)sizeof(struct in6_addr)) {
                                  printf("invalid len");
                                  tlen = 0;
                              } else {
                                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], sizeof(struct in6_addr));
                                  printf("%s", getname6(tptr));
                                  tlen -= sizeof(struct in6_addr);
                                  tptr += sizeof(struct in6_addr);
                              }
                                        break;
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                              if (tlen < (int)(sizeof(struct in6_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN)) {
                                  printf("invalid len");
                                  tlen = 0;
                              } else {
                                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], sizeof(struct in6_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                                  printf("RD: %s, %s",
                                               bgp_vpn_rd_print(tptr),
                                               getname6(tptr+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN));
                                  tlen -= (sizeof(struct in6_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                                  tptr += (sizeof(struct in6_addr)+BGP_VPN_RD_LEN);
                              }
                                        break;
                                    default:
                                        TCHECK2(tptr[0], tlen);
                                        printf("no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                        if (vflag <= 1)
                                            print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);                                        
                                        tptr += tlen;
                                        tlen = 0;
                                        break;
                                    }
                                    break;
#endif
                                case AFNUM_L2VPN:
                                   switch(safi) {
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                                    case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                              if (tlen < (int)sizeof(struct in_addr)) {
                                  printf("invalid len");
                                  tlen = 0;
                              } else {
                                  TCHECK2(tptr[0], sizeof(struct in_addr));
                                  printf("%s", getname(tptr));
                                  tlen -= (sizeof(struct in_addr));
                                  tptr += (sizeof(struct in_addr));
                              }
                                        break;
                                   default:
                                        TCHECK2(tptr[0], tlen);
                                        printf("no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                        if (vflag <= 1)
                                            print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);                                        
                                        tptr += tlen;
                                        tlen = 0;
                                        break;
                                   }
                                   break;

                        default:
                                    TCHECK2(tptr[0], tlen);
                                    printf("no AFI %u decoder",af);
                                    if (vflag <= 1)
                                      print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                    tptr += tlen;
                                    tlen = 0;
                                    break;
                        }
                  }
            }
            tptr += tlen;

            TCHECK(tptr[0]);
            snpa = tptr[0];
            tptr++;

            if (snpa) {
                  printf("\n\t    %u SNPA", snpa);
                  for (/*nothing*/; snpa > 0; snpa--) {
                        TCHECK(tptr[0]);
                        printf("\n\t      %d bytes", tptr[0]);
                        tptr += tptr[0] + 1;
                  }
            } else {
                  printf(", no SNPA");
                }

            while (len - (tptr - pptr) > 0) {
                  switch (af) {
                  case AFNUM_INET:
                            switch (safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                    printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_vpn_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO:
                                advance = decode_rt_routing_info(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                                printf("\n\t      no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                        break;  
                            }
                            break;
#ifdef INET6
                  case AFNUM_INET6:
                            switch (safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                        advance = decode_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                              printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                        break;
                            case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                              printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_vpn_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                              printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_RT_ROUTING_INFO:
                                advance = decode_rt_routing_info(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                              printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                                printf("\n\t      no SAFI %u decoder ",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                        break;
                            }
                            break;
#endif
                        case AFNUM_L2VPN:
                            switch(safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                        advance = decode_labeled_vpn_l2(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);         
                                break;                                   
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*tptr,tlen);
                                printf("no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                                break;
                            }
                            break;


                  default:
                            TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                            printf("\n\t      no AFI %u decoder ",af);
                            if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                            advance = 0;
                            tptr = pptr + len;
                            break;
                  }
                  tptr += advance;
            }
            break;

      case BGPTYPE_MP_UNREACH_NLRI:
            TCHECK2(tptr[0], 3);
            af = EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr);
            safi = tptr[2];

                printf("\n\t    AFI: %s (%u), %sSAFI: %s (%u)",
                       tok2str(bgp_afi_values, "Unknown AFI", af),
                       af,
                       (safi>128) ? "vendor specific " : "", /* 128 is meanwhile wellknown */
                       tok2str(bgp_safi_values, "Unknown SAFI", safi),
                       safi);

            tptr += 3;
                
            while (len - (tptr - pptr) > 0) {
                  switch (af) {
                  case AFNUM_INET:
                            switch (safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                    printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_vpn_prefix4(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                              else if (advance == -2)
                                        goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                                printf("\n\t      no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                        break;  
                            }
                            break;

#ifdef INET6
                  case AFNUM_INET6:
                            switch (safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_UNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_MULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_UNIMULTICAST:
                        advance = decode_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                              printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                        break;
                            case SAFNUM_LABUNICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                                advance = decode_labeled_vpn_prefix6(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);
                                break;
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                                printf("\n\t      no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                        break;
                            }
                            break;
#endif

                        case AFNUM_L2VPN:
                            switch(safi) {
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNMULTICAST:
                            case SAFNUM_VPNUNIMULTICAST:
                        advance = decode_labeled_vpn_l2(tptr, buf, sizeof(buf));
                        if (advance == -1)
                              printf("\n\t    (illegal length)");
                        else if (advance == -2)
                              goto trunc;
                              else
                                        printf("\n\t      %s", buf);         
                                break;                                   
                            default:
                                TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                                printf("no SAFI %u decoder",safi);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);                                        
                                advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                                break;
                            }
                            break;

                  default:
                        TCHECK2(*(tptr-3),tlen);
                        printf("\n\t    no AFI %u decoder",af);
                                if (vflag <= 1)
                                    print_unknown_data(tptr-3,"\n\t    ",tlen);
                        advance = 0;
                        tptr = pptr + len;
                        break;
                  }

                  tptr += advance;
            }
            break;
        case BGPTYPE_EXTD_COMMUNITIES:
            if (len % 8) {
                  printf("invalid len");
                  break;
            }
                while (tlen>0) {
                    u_int16_t extd_comm;

                    TCHECK2(tptr[0], 2);
                    extd_comm=EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr);

                printf("\n\t    %s (0x%04x), Flags [%s]",
                     tok2str(bgp_extd_comm_subtype_values, "unknown extd community typecode", extd_comm),
                     extd_comm,
                     bittok2str(bgp_extd_comm_flag_values, "none", extd_comm));

                    TCHECK2(*(tptr+2), 6);
                    switch(extd_comm) {
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RT_0:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RO_0:
                        printf(": %u:%s",
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr+2),
                               getname(tptr+4));
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RT_1:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RO_1:
                        printf(": %s:%u",
                               getname(tptr+2),
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr+6));
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RT_2:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_RO_2:
                        printf(": %u:%u",
                               EXTRACT_32BITS(tptr+2),
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr+6));
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_LINKBAND:
                    bw.i = EXTRACT_32BITS(tptr+2);
                        printf(": bandwidth: %.3f Mbps",
                               bw.f*8/1000000);
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN2:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN3:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_VPN_ORIGIN4:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RID2:
                        printf("%s", getname(tptr+2));
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE:
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_OSPF_RTYPE2: 
                        printf(": area:%s, router-type:%s, metric-type:%s%s",
                               getname(tptr+2),
                               tok2str(bgp_extd_comm_ospf_rtype_values,
                                       "unknown (0x%02x)",
                                       *(tptr+6)),
                               (*(tptr+7) &  BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_METRIC_TYPE) ? "E2" : "",
                               (*(tptr+6) == (BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_EXT ||BGP_OSPF_RTYPE_NSSA )) ? "E1" : "");
                        break;
                    case BGP_EXT_COM_L2INFO:
                        printf(": %s Control Flags [0x%02x]:MTU %u",
                               tok2str(bgp_l2vpn_encaps_values,
                                       "unknown encaps",
                                       *(tptr+2)),
                                       *(tptr+3),
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr+4));
                        break;
                    default:
                        print_unknown_data(tptr,"\n\t      ",8);
                        break;
                    }
                    tlen -=8;
                    tptr +=8;
                }
                break;

      default:
          TCHECK2(*pptr,len);
            printf("\n\t    no Attribute %u decoder",attr->bgpa_type); /* we have no decoder for the attribute */
            if (vflag <= 1)
                print_unknown_data(pptr,"\n\t    ",len);
            break;
      }
        if (vflag > 1 && len) /* omit zero length attributes*/
            print_unknown_data(pptr,"\n\t    ",len);
        return 1;

trunc:
        return 0;
}

static void
bgp_open_print(const u_char *dat, int length)
{
      struct bgp_open bgpo;
      struct bgp_opt bgpopt;
      int hlen;
      const u_char *opt;
      int i,cap_type,cap_len,tcap_len,cap_offset;

      TCHECK2(dat[0], BGP_OPEN_SIZE);
      memcpy(&bgpo, dat, BGP_OPEN_SIZE);
      hlen = ntohs(bgpo.bgpo_len);

      printf("\n\t  Version %d, ", bgpo.bgpo_version);
      printf("my AS %u, ", ntohs(bgpo.bgpo_myas));
      printf("Holdtime %us, ", ntohs(bgpo.bgpo_holdtime));
      printf("ID %s", getname((u_char *)&bgpo.bgpo_id));
      printf("\n\t  Optional parameters, length: %u", bgpo.bgpo_optlen);

        /* some little sanity checking */
        if (length < bgpo.bgpo_optlen+BGP_OPEN_SIZE) 
            return;

      /* ugly! */
      opt = &((const struct bgp_open *)dat)->bgpo_optlen;
      opt++;

      i = 0;
      while (i < bgpo.bgpo_optlen) {
            TCHECK2(opt[i], BGP_OPT_SIZE);
            memcpy(&bgpopt, &opt[i], BGP_OPT_SIZE);
            if (i + 2 + bgpopt.bgpopt_len > bgpo.bgpo_optlen) {
                        printf("\n\t     Option %d, length: %u", bgpopt.bgpopt_type, bgpopt.bgpopt_len);
                  break;
            }

            printf("\n\t    Option %s (%u), length: %u",
                       tok2str(bgp_opt_values,"Unknown", bgpopt.bgpopt_type),
                       bgpopt.bgpopt_type,
                       bgpopt.bgpopt_len);

                /* now lets decode the options we know*/
                switch(bgpopt.bgpopt_type) {
                case BGP_OPT_CAP:
                    cap_type=opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE];
                    cap_len=opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+1];
                    tcap_len=cap_len;
                    printf("\n\t      %s, length: %u",
                           tok2str(bgp_capcode_values,"Unknown", cap_type),
                           cap_len);
                    switch(cap_type) {
                    case BGP_CAPCODE_MP:
                        printf("\n\t\tAFI %s (%u), SAFI %s (%u)",
                               tok2str(bgp_afi_values,"Unknown", EXTRACT_16BITS(opt+i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2)),
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(opt+i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2),
                               tok2str(bgp_safi_values,"Unknown", opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+5]),
                               opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+5]);
                        break;
                    case BGP_CAPCODE_RESTART:
                        printf("\n\t\tRestart Flags: [%s], Restart Time %us",
                               ((opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2])&0x80) ? "R" : "none",
                               EXTRACT_16BITS(opt+i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2)&0xfff);
                        tcap_len-=2;
                        cap_offset=4;
                        while(tcap_len>=4) {
                            printf("\n\t\t  AFI %s (%u), SAFI %s (%u), Forwarding state preserved: %s",
                                   tok2str(bgp_afi_values,"Unknown", EXTRACT_16BITS(opt+i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+cap_offset)),
                                   EXTRACT_16BITS(opt+i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+cap_offset),
                                   tok2str(bgp_safi_values,"Unknown", opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+cap_offset+2]),
                                   opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+cap_offset+2],
                                   ((opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+cap_offset+3])&0x80) ? "yes" : "no" );
                            tcap_len-=4;
                            cap_offset+=4;
                        }
                        break;
                    case BGP_CAPCODE_RR:
                    case BGP_CAPCODE_RR_CISCO:
                        break;
                    default:
                        printf("\n\t\tno decoder for Capability %u",
                               cap_type);
                        if (vflag <= 1)
                            print_unknown_data(&opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2],"\n\t\t",cap_len);
                        break;
                    }
                    if (vflag > 1)
                        print_unknown_data(&opt[i+BGP_OPT_SIZE+2],"\n\t\t",cap_len);
                    break;
                case BGP_OPT_AUTH:
                default:
                       printf("\n\t      no decoder for option %u",
                           bgpopt.bgpopt_type);
                       break;
                }

            i += BGP_OPT_SIZE + bgpopt.bgpopt_len;
      }
      return;
trunc:
      printf("[|BGP]");
}

static void
bgp_update_print(const u_char *dat, int length)
{
      struct bgp bgp;
      struct bgp_attr bgpa;
      int hlen;
      const u_char *p;
      int len;
      int i;

      TCHECK2(dat[0], BGP_SIZE);
      memcpy(&bgp, dat, BGP_SIZE);
      hlen = ntohs(bgp.bgp_len);
      p = dat + BGP_SIZE;     /*XXX*/

      /* Unfeasible routes */
      len = EXTRACT_16BITS(p);
      if (len) {
            /*
             * Without keeping state from the original NLRI message,
             * it's not possible to tell if this a v4 or v6 route,
             * so only try to decode it if we're not v6 enabled.
               */
#ifdef INET6
            printf("\n\t  Withdrawn routes: %d bytes", len);
#else
            char buf[MAXHOSTNAMELEN + 100];
            int wpfx;

            TCHECK2(p[2], len);
            i = 2;

            printf("\n\t  Withdrawn routes:");

            while(i < 2 + len) {
                  wpfx = decode_prefix4(&p[i], buf, sizeof(buf));
                  if (wpfx == -1) {
                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                        break;
                  } else if (wpfx == -2)
                        goto trunc;
                  else {
                        i += wpfx;
                        printf("\n\t    %s", buf);
                  }
            }
#endif
      }
      p += 2 + len;

      TCHECK2(p[0], 2);
      len = EXTRACT_16BITS(p);
      if (len) {
            /* do something more useful!*/
            i = 2;
            while (i < 2 + len) {
                  int alen, aoff;

                  TCHECK2(p[i], sizeof(bgpa));
                  memcpy(&bgpa, &p[i], sizeof(bgpa));
                  alen = bgp_attr_len(&bgpa);
                  aoff = bgp_attr_off(&bgpa);

                   printf("\n\t  %s (%u), length: %u",
                              tok2str(bgp_attr_values, "Unknown Attribute", bgpa.bgpa_type),
                              bgpa.bgpa_type,
                              alen);

                  if (bgpa.bgpa_flags) {
                        printf(", Flags [%s%s%s%s",
                              bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0x80 ? "O" : "",
                              bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0x40 ? "T" : "",
                              bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0x20 ? "P" : "",
                              bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0x10 ? "E" : "");
                        if (bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0xf)
                              printf("+%x", bgpa.bgpa_flags & 0xf);
                        printf("]: ");
                  }
                  if (!bgp_attr_print(&bgpa, &p[i + aoff], alen))
                        goto trunc;
                  i += aoff + alen;
            }
      }
      p += 2 + len;

      if (dat + length > p) {
            printf("\n\t  Updated routes:");
            while (dat + length > p) {
                  char buf[MAXHOSTNAMELEN + 100];
                  i = decode_prefix4(p, buf, sizeof(buf));
                  if (i == -1)
                        printf("\n\t    (illegal prefix length)");
                  else if (i == -2)
                        goto trunc;
                  else {
                        printf("\n\t    %s", buf);
                        p += i;
                  }
            }
      }
      return;
trunc:
      printf("[|BGP]");
}

static void
bgp_notification_print(const u_char *dat, int length)
{
      struct bgp_notification bgpn;
      int hlen;
      const u_char *tptr;

      TCHECK2(dat[0], BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE);
      memcpy(&bgpn, dat, BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE);
      hlen = ntohs(bgpn.bgpn_len);

        /* some little sanity checking */
        if (length<BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE)
            return;

      printf(", %s (%u)",
             tok2str(bgp_notify_major_values, "Unknown Error", bgpn.bgpn_major),
             bgpn.bgpn_major);

        switch (bgpn.bgpn_major) {

        case BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_MSG:
            printf(", subcode %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_notify_minor_msg_values, "Unknown", bgpn.bgpn_minor),
               bgpn.bgpn_minor);
            break;
        case BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_OPEN:
            printf(", subcode %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_notify_minor_open_values, "Unknown", bgpn.bgpn_minor),
               bgpn.bgpn_minor);
            break;
        case BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_UPDATE:
            printf(", subcode %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_notify_minor_update_values, "Unknown", bgpn.bgpn_minor),
               bgpn.bgpn_minor);
            break;
        case BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CAP:
            printf(" subcode %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_notify_minor_cap_values, "Unknown", bgpn.bgpn_minor),
               bgpn.bgpn_minor);
        case BGP_NOTIFY_MAJOR_CEASE:
            printf(", subcode %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_notify_minor_cease_values, "Unknown", bgpn.bgpn_minor),
               bgpn.bgpn_minor);

          /* draft-ietf-idr-cease-subcode-02 mentions optionally 7 bytes
             * for the maxprefix subtype, which may contain AFI, SAFI and MAXPREFIXES
             */
          if(bgpn.bgpn_minor == BGP_NOTIFY_MINOR_CEASE_MAXPRFX && length >= BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE + 7) {
            tptr = dat + BGP_NOTIFICATION_SIZE;
            TCHECK2(*tptr, 7);
            printf(", AFI %s (%u), SAFI %s (%u), Max Prefixes: %u",
                   tok2str(bgp_afi_values, "Unknown", EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr)),
                   EXTRACT_16BITS(tptr),
                   tok2str(bgp_safi_values, "Unknown", *(tptr+2)),
                   *(tptr+2),
                   EXTRACT_32BITS(tptr+3));
          }
            break;
        default:
            break;
        }

      return;
trunc:
      printf("[|BGP]");
}

static void
bgp_route_refresh_print(const u_char *pptr, int len) {

        const struct bgp_route_refresh *bgp_route_refresh_header;
        bgp_route_refresh_header = (const struct bgp_route_refresh *)pptr;

        printf("\n\t  AFI %s (%u), SAFI %s (%u)",
               tok2str(bgp_afi_values,"Unknown",
                       EXTRACT_16BITS(&bgp_route_refresh_header->afi)), /* this stinks but the compiler pads the structure weird */
               EXTRACT_16BITS(&bgp_route_refresh_header->afi),
               tok2str(bgp_safi_values,"Unknown",
                       bgp_route_refresh_header->safi),
               bgp_route_refresh_header->safi);

        if (vflag > 1)
            print_unknown_data(pptr,"\n\t  ", len);
        
        return;
}

static int
bgp_header_print(const u_char *dat, int length)
{
      struct bgp bgp;

      TCHECK2(dat[0], BGP_SIZE);
      memcpy(&bgp, dat, BGP_SIZE);
      printf("\n\t%s Message (%u), length: %u",
               tok2str(bgp_msg_values, "Unknown", bgp.bgp_type),
               bgp.bgp_type,
               length);

      switch (bgp.bgp_type) {
      case BGP_OPEN:
            bgp_open_print(dat, length);
            break;
      case BGP_UPDATE:
            bgp_update_print(dat, length);
            break;
      case BGP_NOTIFICATION:
            bgp_notification_print(dat, length);
            break;
        case BGP_KEEPALIVE:
                break;
        case BGP_ROUTE_REFRESH:
                bgp_route_refresh_print(dat, length);
                break;
        default:
            /* we have no decoder for the BGP message */
            printf("\n\t  no Message %u decoder",bgp.bgp_type);
            print_unknown_data(dat,"\n\t  ",length);
                break;
      }
      return 1;
trunc:
      printf("[|BGP]");
      return 0;
}

void
bgp_print(const u_char *dat, int length)
{
      const u_char *p;
      const u_char *ep;
      const u_char *start;
      const u_char marker[] = {
            0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff,
            0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff,
      };
      struct bgp bgp;
      u_int16_t hlen;

      ep = dat + length;
      if (snapend < dat + length)
            ep = snapend;

      printf(": BGP, length: %u",length);

        if (vflag < 1) /* lets be less chatty */
                return;

      p = dat;
      start = p;
      while (p < snapend) {
            if (!TTEST2(p[0], 1))
                  break;
            if (p[0] != 0xff) {
                  p++;
                  continue;
            }

            if (!TTEST2(p[0], sizeof(marker)))
                  break;
            if (memcmp(p, marker, sizeof(marker)) != 0) {
                  p++;
                  continue;
            }

            /* found BGP header */
            TCHECK2(p[0], BGP_SIZE);      /*XXX*/
            memcpy(&bgp, p, BGP_SIZE);

            if (start != p)
                  printf(" [|BGP]");

            hlen = ntohs(bgp.bgp_len);
            if (hlen < BGP_SIZE) {
                  printf("\n[|BGP Bogus header length %u < %u]", hlen,
                      BGP_SIZE);
                  break;
            }

            if (TTEST2(p[0], hlen)) {
                  if (!bgp_header_print(p, hlen))
                        return;
                  p += hlen;
                  start = p;
            } else {
                  printf("\n[|BGP %s]", tok2str(bgp_msg_values, "Unknown Message Type",bgp.bgp_type));
                  break;
            }
      }

      return;

trunc:
      printf(" [|BGP]");
}

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